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We also present an analysis of the structural properties of the clusters. It is found that the bond lengths, binding energies, and dissociation energies obtained from the DMC calculations are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results. The electron-correlation contribution to the binding energy indicates that in the case of the linear isomers, the clusters of odd-number size are relatively more favored than their neighbors of even-number size, whereas for the cyclic isomers, we do not observe the oscillation pattern.

A comparative analysis of the dissociation energy and second difference in energy indicates that the linear isomers C 3 and C 5 are the most stable ones.

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Brito 1 , G. The weighted average bond length d av and effective coordination number ECN of the carbon clusters as a function of the cluster size. The blue triangle and red circles are calculation results for the cyclic and linear structures, respectively. The solid lines are only guides to the eyes.

The average correlation energy per electron in the clusters. The black diamond, blue triangles, and red circles are results for the carbon atom and cyclic and linear clusters, respectively. Total magnetic moment per atom of the linear red circles and cyclic blue triangles clusters as a function of the cluster size. The black diamond shows the magnetic moment of a carbon atom.

The binding energy per atom of the linear and cyclic structures as a function of the cluster size n. The inset shows the difference between the binding energies of the linear and cyclic clusters. The electron-correlation contribution to the binding energy per atom as a function of the cluster size n. The blue triangles and red circles are results for cyclic and linear structures, respectively.

The blue lozenges and green squares are the DMC and HF results, respectively, with the optimized ground-state structures. In a the black stars show the experimental values from Ref. Brito, G.

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A 98 , — Published 12 December Research Areas. Issue Vol. Authorization Required. Finally, we wish to evaluate properties of the new correlated wave function using the VMC routine Fig. Its input is nearly identical to that already discussed. The program, however, will compile without these libraries, so the barrier to entry is quite low.

Using a Siesta trial function and a system of Si atoms valence electrons , the program uses approximately MB of memory per processor core, well within the capabilities of most systems.

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While the scaling is very favorable, the prefactor is large, approximately by a factor of to , depending on the type of the system, over that of DFT. There are of course many variables that affect the relative performance of the two methods, and we make no attempt to account for all of them; these calculations are just to give an idea of how one should choose between them.

The time is normalized to the CCSD calculation on methane. Pseudopotentials were used for both methods to remove the core electrons. Parallel performance is particularly important for accurate but computationally demanding methods such as quantum Monte Carlo. While systems with a few tens of electrons are currently feasible on a single processor, larger systems require parallel platforms. Development strategy The source code is kept in a public Mercurial [56] a distributed revision control system repository. This provides a relatively easy path for incorporation of code from contributors, since it allows the following development strategy: 1 The researcher downloads the source code repository with the history of all changes.

This does not require sharing of his or her revisions. There are tools and a tutorial on the QWalk website that make this process very simple. Conclusion QWalk is a state of the art, usable, and extensible program for performing quantum Monte Carlo calculations on electronic systems. It is able to handle medium to large systems of electrons; the maximum size is mostly limited by the available computer time.

Since QWalk is available without charge and under the GNU Public license, it is hoped that it will help bring both development and use of quantum Monte Carlo methods to a wide audience. It is easy to modify the system module to incorporate other types of interactions and to expand the one-particle and pair orbitals using the coded basis functions.

There are two major directions forward for development.

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Work is currently progressing on this front. The second direction is the addition of new features. QWalk provides the developer with the opportunity to easily write and try out new wave functions. A similar advantage also exists for the choice of Hamiltonian, expectation value, and Monte Carlo method. With a moderate amount of developer effort, QWalk has the opportunity to become a large collection of models and wave functions, where a wave function developed for one Hamiltonian can immediately be tried with another, with access to many QMC methods for analysis.

Appendix A. Adding a module We provide an example of how to add a new module. All the modules follow this basic procedure, just with different functions. Appendix B. They are localized, which improves the scaling of QMC, and allow a very compact expression of the one-particle orbitals, so less basis functions need to be calculated. Overall, a gaussian representation can improve the performance of the QMC code by orders of magnitude over the plane-wave representation. We have developed a simple method to do this conversion that is fast and accurate. All the overlap integrals are easily written in terms of two-center integrals for S, and P is easily evaluated in terms of a shifted Gaussian integral.

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] W. Foulkes, L. Mitas, R. Needs, G. Rajagopal, Rev. Grossman, J. Hammond, W.

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